5. False Dilemma or Either/Or Fallacy

a. occurs when an argument is formulated on the basis of a comparison of unrelated things. Sometimes that approach is appropriate. However, there are times when an argument is given but its comparison is not legitimate.

b. This argument is sometimes referred to as “circular reasoning.” It occurs in an argument when a person assumes that their conclusion is true by the premise itself, or that the conclusion is supported by itself, or by simply restating the conclusion in a different way.

c. occurs in an argument when a person oversimplifies a complex issue to make it appear that only two alternatives are possible. There are times when only two options exist. However, when this fallacy does occur, you should ask yourself whether additional options are plausible.

d. is used when a person justifies a course of action because “everyone else is doing it.” This argument is often used when peer pressure (fear of rejection or promise of affection) causes a person to defend their action or inaction.

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