12. Straw Man Fallacy

a. occurs when a person presents another person’s argument in a weak, misrepresented, or exaggerated form in order to win the argument. The reason this argument is fallacious is that it is not representative of their opponent’s true position.

b. is used when a person argues against an action on the unsupported assertion that it will lead to a much worse condition. An assumption is taking place. A leads to B which will inevitably lead to C.

c. which is also known as One-sidedness or Special Pleading is arguing a point by selecting and presenting only the evidence that supports one’s current position or opinion. It omits the evidence against it.

d. is raising an irrelevant issue to divert attention from the primary issue. This fallacy often appeals to fear or pity. The argument also can use guilt to manipulate others into agreement and action. It is often inserted into an argument to help a person win the argument without directly dealing with the real issue. It is irrelevant to the real issue at hand, though it may seem to be related.

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