10. Begging the Question Fallacy

a. This argument is sometimes referred to as “circular reasoning.” It occurs in an argument when a person assumes that their conclusion is true by the premise itself, or that the conclusion is supported by itself, or by simply restating the conclusion in a different way.

b. used when a person appeals to the opinions of an expert in a field rather than doing their own research. It is assumed that their conclusions are true based solely on their reputation. It is also used when a person appeals to the authority of a popular, well-liked person, who is respected by the audience, but the person has no real authority on the matter.

c. is used when a person claims something is true simply because it cannot be disproved, or that something is fictitious because it cannot be proven to be true.

d. is used when a person justifies a course of action because “everyone else is doing it.” This argument is often used when peer pressure (fear of rejection or promise of affection) causes a person to defend their action or inaction.

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